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  Field Listing - Government type

Government type
Afghanistan Islamic republic
Albania emerging democracy
Algeria republic
American Samoa NA
Andorra parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives
Angola republic; multiparty presidential regime
Anguilla NA
Antarctica Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica; the 28th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Stockholm, Sweden in June 2005; at these periodic meetings, decisions are made by consensus (not by vote) of all consultative member nations; at the end of 2005, there were 45 treaty member nations: 28 consultative and 17 non-consultative; consultative (decision-making) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 21 non-claimant nations; the US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims; the US does not recognize the claims of others; Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) in accordance with their own national laws; the years in parentheses indicate when a consultative member-nation acceded to the Treaty and when it was accepted as a consultative member, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory; claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1975/1983), Bulgaria (1978/1998) China (1983/1985), Ecuador (1987/1990), Finland (1984/1989), Germany (1979/1981), India (1983/1983), Italy (1981/1987), Japan, South Korea (1986/1989), Netherlands (1967/1990), Peru (1981/1989), Poland (1961/1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1982/1988), Sweden (1984/1988), Ukraine (1992/2004), Uruguay (1980/1985), and the US; non-consultative members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1962/1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1962/1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1996), and Venezuela (1999); note - Czechoslovakia acceded to the Treaty in 1962 and separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993; Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations; other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through six specific annexes: 1) environmental impact assessment, 2) conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora, 3) waste disposal and waste management, 4) prevention of marine pollution, 5) area protection and management and 6) liability arising from environmental emergencies; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research; a permanent Antarctic Treaty Secretariat was established in 2004 in Buenos Aires, Argentina
Antigua and Barbuda constitutional parliamentary democracy
Argentina republic
Armenia republic
Aruba parliamentary democracy
Australia federal parliamentary democracy
Austria federal republic
Azerbaijan republic
Bahamas, The constitutional parliamentary democracy
Bahrain constitutional hereditary monarchy
Bangladesh parliamentary democracy
Barbados parliamentary democracy
Belarus republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship
Belgium federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy
Belize parliamentary democracy
Benin republic
Bermuda parliamentary; self-governing territory
Bhutan monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Bolivia republic
Bosnia and Herzegovina emerging federal democratic republic
Botswana parliamentary republic
Brazil federative republic
British Virgin Islands NA
Brunei constitutional sultanate
Bulgaria parliamentary democracy
Burkina Faso parliamentary republic
Burma military junta
Burundi republic
Cambodia multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy
Cameroon republic; multiparty presidential regime
Canada constitutional monarchy that is also a parliamentary democracy and a federation
Cape Verde republic
Cayman Islands British crown colony
Central African Republic republic
Chad republic
Chile republic
China Communist state
Christmas Island NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands NA
Colombia republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Comoros republic
Congo, Democratic Republic of the transitional government
Congo, Republic of the republic
Cook Islands self-governing parliamentary democracy
Costa Rica democratic republic
Cote d'Ivoire republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960
note: the government is currently operating under a power-sharing agreement mandated by international mediators
Croatia presidential/parliamentary democracy
Cuba Communist state
Cyprus republic
note: a separation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974 that followed a Greek junta-supported coup attempt gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which is recognized only by Turkey
Czech Republic parliamentary democracy
Denmark constitutional monarchy
Djibouti republic
Dominica parliamentary democracy
Dominican Republic representative democracy
East Timor republic
Ecuador republic
Egypt republic
El Salvador republic
Equatorial Guinea republic
Eritrea transitional government
note: following a successful referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly, composed entirely of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature; the constitution, ratified in May 1997, did not enter into effect, pending parliamentary and presidential elections; parliamentary elections had been scheduled in December 2001, but were postponed indefinitely; currently the sole legal party is the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ)
Estonia parliamentary republic
Ethiopia federal republic
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) NA
Faroe Islands NA
Fiji republic
Finland republic
France republic
French Polynesia NA
Gabon republic; multiparty presidential regime
Gambia, The republic
Georgia republic
Germany federal republic
Ghana constitutional democracy
Gibraltar NA
Greece parliamentary republic
Greenland parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy
Grenada parliamentary democracy
Guam NA
Guatemala constitutional democratic republic
Guernsey NA
Guinea republic
Guinea-Bissau republic
Guyana republic
Haiti elected government
Holy See (Vatican City) ecclesiastical
Honduras democratic constitutional republic
Hong Kong limited democracy
Hungary parliamentary democracy
Iceland constitutional republic
India federal republic
Indonesia republic
Iran theocratic republic
Iraq parliamentary democracy
Ireland republic, parliamentary democracy
Isle of Man parliamentary democracy
Israel parliamentary democracy
Italy republic
Jamaica constitutional parliamentary democracy
Japan constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government
Jersey NA
Jordan constitutional monarchy
Kazakhstan republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Kenya republic
Kiribati republic
Korea, North Communist state one-man dictatorship
Korea, South republic
Kuwait constitutional hereditary emirate
Kyrgyzstan republic
Laos Communist state
Latvia parliamentary democracy
Lebanon republic
Lesotho parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Liberia republic
Libya Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship
Liechtenstein constitutional monarchy
Lithuania parliamentary democracy
Luxembourg constitutional monarchy
Macau limited democracy
Macedonia parliamentary democracy
Madagascar republic
Malawi multiparty democracy
Malaysia constitutional monarchy
note: nominally headed by paramount ruler and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers except Melaka and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls); Sabah holds 25 seats in House of Representatives; Sarawak holds 28 seats in House of Representatives
Maldives republic
Mali republic
Malta republic
Marshall Islands constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986 and the Amended Compact entered into force in May 2004
Mauritania republic
Mauritius parliamentary democracy
Mayotte NA
Mexico federal republic
Micronesia, Federated States of constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986 and the Amended Compact entered into force May 2004
Moldova republic
Monaco constitutional monarchy
Mongolia mixed parliamentary/presidential
Montenegro republic
Montserrat NA
Morocco constitutional monarchy
Mozambique republic
Namibia republic
Nauru republic
Nepal parliamentary democracy
Netherlands constitutional monarchy
Netherlands Antilles parliamentary
New Caledonia NA
New Zealand parliamentary democracy
Nicaragua republic
Niger republic
Nigeria federal republic
Niue self-governing parliamentary democracy
Norfolk Island NA
Northern Mariana Islands commonwealth; self-governing with locally elected governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature
Norway constitutional monarchy
Oman monarchy
Pakistan federal republic
Palau constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 1 October 1994
Panama constitutional democracy
Papua New Guinea constitutional parliamentary democracy
Paraguay constitutional republic
Peru constitutional republic
Philippines republic
Pitcairn Islands NA
Poland republic
Portugal parliamentary democracy
Puerto Rico commonwealth
Qatar traditional emirate
Romania republic
Russia federation
Rwanda republic; presidential, multiparty system
Saint Helena NA
Saint Kitts and Nevis parliamentary democracy
Saint Lucia parliamentary democracy
Saint Pierre and Miquelon NA
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines parliamentary democracy
Samoa mix of parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy
San Marino independent republic
Sao Tome and Principe republic
Saudi Arabia monarchy
Senegal republic
Serbia republic
Seychelles republic
Sierra Leone constitutional democracy
Singapore parliamentary republic
Slovakia parliamentary democracy
Slovenia parliamentary republic
Solomon Islands parliamentary democracy
Somalia no permanent national government; transitional, parliamentary federal government
South Africa republic
Spain parliamentary monarchy
Sri Lanka republic
Sudan Government of National Unity (GNU) - the National Congress Party (NCP) and Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a power-sharing government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA); the NCP, which came to power by military coup in 1989, is the majority partner; the agreement stipulates national elections for the 2008 - 2009 timeframe.
Suriname constitutional democracy
Svalbard NA
Swaziland monarchy
Sweden constitutional monarchy
Switzerland formally a confederation, but similar in structure to a federal republic
Syria republic under an authoritarian, military-dominated regime
Taiwan multiparty democracy
Tajikistan republic
Tanzania republic
Thailand constitutional monarchy
Togo republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Tokelau NA
Tonga constitutional monarchy
Trinidad and Tobago parliamentary democracy
Tunisia republic
Turkey republican parliamentary democracy
Turkmenistan republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Turks and Caicos Islands NA
Tuvalu constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy
Uganda republic
Ukraine republic
United Arab Emirates federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE federal government and other powers reserved to member emirates
United Kingdom constitutional monarchy
United States Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition
Uruguay constitutional republic
Uzbekistan republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Vanuatu parliamentary republic
Venezuela federal republic
Vietnam Communist state
Virgin Islands NA
Wallis and Futuna NA
Western Sahara legal status of territory and issue of sovereignty unresolved; territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro), which in February 1976 formally proclaimed a government-in-exile of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), led by President Mohamed ABDELAZIZ; territory partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring northern two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government-in-exile was seated as an Organization of African Unity (OAU) member in 1984; guerrilla activities continued sporadically, until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented 6 September 1991
Yemen republic
Zambia republic
Zimbabwe parliamentary democracy

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

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