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 Transnational Issues

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

Map of Malaysia

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Malaysia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore and the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's history were marred by Indonesian efforts to control Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's secession from the Federation in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials, to expansion in manufacturing, services, and tourism.
   Geography    Malaysia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
2 30 N, 112 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 329,750 sq km
land: 328,550 sq km
water: 1,200 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,669 km
border countries: Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km
Definition Field Listing
4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
Definition Field Listing
tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
Definition Field Listing
coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 5.46%
permanent crops: 17.54%
other: 77% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
3,650 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
flooding, landslides, forest fires
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea
   People    Malaysia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24,385,858 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 32.6% (male 4,093,859/female 3,862,730)
15-64 years: 62.6% (male 7,660,680/female 7,613,537)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 509,260/female 645,792) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24.1 years
male: 23.6 years
female: 24.8 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.78% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.86 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.05 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal immigrants from other countries in the region (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 17.16 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.87 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 72.5 years
male: 69.8 years
female: 75.38 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.04 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.4% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
52,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations (2005)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Malaysian(s)
adjective: Malaysian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Malay 50.4%, Chinese 23.7%, Indigenous 11%, Indian 7.1%, others 7.8% (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing
Muslim, Buddhist, Daoist, Hindu, Christian, Sikh; note - in addition, Shamanism is practiced in East Malaysia
Definition Field Listing
Bahasa Melayu (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai
note: in East Malaysia there are several indigenous languages; most widely spoken are Iban and Kadazan
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.7%
male: 92%
female: 85.4% (2002)
   Government    Malaysia Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
local long form: none
local short form: Malaysia
former: Federation of Malaysia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy
note: nominally headed by paramount ruler and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers except Melaka and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls); Sabah holds 25 seats in House of Representatives; Sarawak holds 28 seats in House of Representatives
Definition Field Listing
name: Kuala Lumpur
geographic coordinates: 3 10 N, 101 42 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Putrajaya is referred to as administrative center not capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, and Terengganu; and one federal territory (wilayah persekutuan) with three components, city of Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
Definition Field Listing
31 August 1957 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day/Malaysia Day, 31 August (1957)
Definition Field Listing
31 August 1957; amended 16 September 1963
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; Islamic law is applied to Muslims in matters of family law and religion
Definition Field Listing
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Paramount Ruler Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin (since 13 December 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi (since 31 October 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (since 7 January 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament with consent of the paramount ruler
elections: paramount ruler elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; election last held 3 November 2006 (next to be held in 2011); prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins a plurality of seats in the House of Representatives becomes prime minister
election results: Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin elected paramount ruler
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of the Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 appointed by the paramount ruler, 26 appointed by the state legislatures) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (219 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 21 March 2004 (next must be held by 2009)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - BN 91%, DAP 5%, PAS 3%, other 1%; seats by party - BN 199, DAP 12, PAS 6, PKR 1, independent 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Federal Court (judges appointed by the paramount ruler on the advice of the prime minister)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
ruling-coalition National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN, consisting of the following parties: Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party or PGRM [LIM Keng Yaik]; Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [LIEW Vui Keong]; Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA [ONG Ka Ting]; Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongresi India Malaysia) or MIC [S. Samy VELLU]; Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP]; Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]; Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu or PBB [Patinggi Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud]; Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS [James MASING]; Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Sabah) or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee]; Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [George CHAN Hong Nam]; United Malays National Organization or UMNO [ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi]; United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Bernard DOMPOK]; People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malaysia) or PPP [M.Keyveas]; Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP [William MAWANI]; opposition parties: Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [KARPAL Singh]; Islamic Party of Malaysia (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]; People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismael]; Sarawak National Party or SNAP [Edwin DUNDANG]; opposition coalition Alternative Front (Barisan Alternatif) or BA - consists of PAS and PKR
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Rajmah binti HUSSAIN
chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 572-9700
FAX: [1] (202) 572-9882
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher J. LAFLEUR
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur 50440
mailing address: US Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone: [60] (3) 2168-5000
FAX: [60] (3) 2142-2207
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US
   Economy    Malaysia Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Malaysia, a middle-income country, transformed itself from 1971 through the late 1990s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Growth was almost exclusively driven by exports - particularly of electronics. As a result, Malaysia was hard hit by the global economic downturn and the slump in the information technology (IT) sector in 2001 and 2002. GDP in 2001 grew only 0.5% because of an estimated 11% contraction in exports, but a substantial fiscal stimulus package equal to US $1.9 billion mitigated the worst of the recession, and the economy rebounded in 2002 with a 4.1% increase. The economy grew 4.9% in 2003, notwithstanding a difficult first half, when external pressures from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the Iraq War led to caution in the business community. Growth topped 7% in 2004 and 5% per year in 2005-06. As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia has profited from higher world energy prices, although the rising cost of domestic gasoline and diesel fuel forced Kuala Lumpur to reduce government subsidies, contributing to higher inflation. Malaysia "unpegged" the ringgit from the US dollar in 2005 and the currency appreciated 6% against the dollar in 2006. Healthy foreign exchange reserves and a small external debt greatly reduce the risk that Malaysia will experience a financial crisis over the near term similar to the one in 1997. The economy remains dependent on continued growth in the US, China, and Japan - top export destinations and key sources of foreign investment.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$308.8 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$131.8 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.5% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$12,700 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 8.3%
industry: 48.1%
services: 43.6% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.73 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 14.5%
industry: 36%
services: 49.5% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.5% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
8% (1998 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 39.2% (2003 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
49.2 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.8% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.9% of GDP (2006 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $31.63 billion
expenditures: $37 billion; including capital expenditures of $9.4 billion (2006 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
46.7% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
Peninsular Malaysia - rubber, palm oil, cocoa, rice; Sabah - subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconuts, rice; Sarawak - rubber, pepper, timber
Definition Field Listing
Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.8% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
78.24 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
72.71 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
50 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
770,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
515,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
230,200 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day (2003)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.1 billion bbl (2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
62.43 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
32.97 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29.46 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.124 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$17.86 billion (2006 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$158.7 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
electronic equipment, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 19.7%, Singapore 15.6%, Japan 9.3%, China 6.6%, Hong Kong 5.8%, Thailand 5.4% (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$127.3 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 14.6%, US 13%, Singapore 11.8%, China 11.6%, Taiwan 5.6%, Thailand 5.3%, South Korea 5%, Germany 4.5% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$82.3 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$57.77 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
ringgit (MYR)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
ringgits per US dollar - 3.67 (2006), 3.8 (2005), 3.8 (2004), 3.8 (2003), 3.8 (2002)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Malaysia Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.366 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.545 million (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern system; international service excellent
domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations
international: country code - 60; submarine cables to India, Hong Kong, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2001)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 35, FM 391, shortwave 15 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
mainland Malaysia 51; Sabah 16; Sarawak 21; note - many are low power stations (2006)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
158,650 (2006)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.016 million (2005)
   Transportation    Malaysia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
117 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 37
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 7 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 80
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 72 (2006)
Definition Field Listing
2 (2006)
Definition Field Listing
condensate 282 km; gas 5,372 km; oil 1,715 km; oil/gas/water 19 km; refined products 114 km (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,890 km
standard gauge: 57 km 1.435-m gauge (57 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,833 km 1.000-m gauge (150 km electrified) (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 98,721 km
paved: 80,280 km (including 1,821 km of expressways)
unpaved: 18,441 km (2004)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,200 km
note: Peninsular Malaysia 3,200 km, Sabah 1,500 km, Sarawak 2,500 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 312 ships (1000 GRT or over) 5,542,727 GRT/7,544,154 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 19, cargo 99, chemical tanker 38, container 48, liquefied gas 27, livestock carrier 1, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 61, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 6
foreign-owned: 66 (China 1, Germany 2, Hong Kong 14, Japan 4, South Korea 1, Singapore 44)
registered in other countries: 68 (Bahamas 12, Belize 1, Cayman Islands 1, Mongolia 1, Panama 13, Philippines 1, Singapore 35, US 4) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Bintulu, Johor, Labuan, Lahad Datu, Lumut, Miri, George Town (Penang), Port Kelang, Tanjung Pelepas
   Military    Malaysia Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Malaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia, ATM): Malaysian Army (Tentera Darat Malaysia), Royal Malaysian Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia, TLDM), Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia, TUDM) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for voluntary military service (2005)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 5,584,231
females age 18-49: 5,510,345 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 4,574,854
females age 18-49: 4,613,321 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 244,418
females age 18-49: 231,896 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.03% (FY00)
   Transnational Issues    Malaysia Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Malaysia has asserted sovereignty over the Spratly Islands together with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; while the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions over the Spratly Islands, it is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Malaysia was not party to the March 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation, bridge construction, maritime boundaries, and Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Putih - but parties agree to ICJ arbitration on island dispute within three years; ICJ awarded Ligitan and Sipadan islands, also claimed by Indonesia and Philippines, to Malaysia but left maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Celebes Sea in dispute, culminating in hostile confrontations in March 2005 over concessions to the Ambalat oil block; separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities; Philippines retains a now dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo; in 2003, Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have stalemated prompting consideration of international adjudication; Malaysia's land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is in dispute; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 15,181 (Indonesia) 9,601 (Burma) (2005)
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing
current situation: Malaysia is a destination and, to a lesser extent, a source and transit country for men and women trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor; foreign victims, mostly women and girls from China, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam, are trafficked to Malaysia for commercial sexual exploitation; economic migrants from countries in the region who work as domestic servants or laborers in the construction and agricultural sectors face exploitative conditions in Malaysia that meet the definition of involuntary servitude; some Malaysian women, primarily of Chinese ethnicity, are trafficked abroad for sexual exploitation
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Malaysia is placed on Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking, particularly its failure to provide protection for victims of trafficking
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
regional transit point for some illicit drugs; drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously and carries severe penalties

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

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