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 Transnational Issues

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

Map of Pakistan

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Pakistan Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002.
   Geography    Pakistan Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
30 00 N, 70 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 803,940 sq km
land: 778,720 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6,774 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
Definition Field Listing
1,046 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Definition Field Listing
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Definition Field Listing
flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 24.44%
permanent crops: 0.84%
other: 74.72% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
182,300 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
   People    Pakistan Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
165,803,560 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 39% (male 33,293,428/female 31,434,314)
15-64 years: 56.9% (male 48,214,298/female 46,062,933)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 3,256,065/female 3,542,522) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19.8 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.09% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 70.45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 70.84 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 70.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 63.39 years
male: 62.4 years
female: 64.44 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
74,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,900 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and cutaneous leishmaniasis are high risks depending on location
animal contact disease: rabies (2005)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
Definition Field Listing
Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 48.7%
male: 61.7%
female: 35.2% (2004 est.)
   Government    Pakistan Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
federal republic
Definition Field Listing
name: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas
Definition Field Listing
14 August 1947 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
Definition Field Listing
12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
note: following a military takeover on 12 October 1999, Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez MUSHARRAF, suspended Pakistan's Constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; on 12 May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court unanimously validated the October 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority for three years from the coup date; on 20 June 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself as president and was sworn in, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; in a referendum held on 30 April 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years; on 1 January 2004, MUSHARRAF won a vote of confidence in the Senate, National Assembly, and four provincial assemblies
chief of state: President General Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 June 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Shaukat AZIZ (since 28 August 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the president is elected by an electoral college drawn from the national parliament and provincial assemblies for a five-year term; note - Musharraf was last sworn in as President in November 2002; the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly (next elections to be held in 2007)
election results: AZIZ elected by the National Assembly on 27 August 2004
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; half of the Senate's seats turn over every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 seats filled by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; members serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held in March 2006 (next to be held in March 2009); National Assembly - last held 10 October 2002 (next to be held in 2007)
election results: Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML 39, MMA 18, PPPP 9, MQM 6, PML/N 4, PkMAP 3, PPP 3, ANP 2, BNP-Awami 1, BNP/M 1, JWP 1, PML/F 1, independents 12; National Assembly results - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PML/Q 126, PPPP 81, MMA 63, PML/N 19, MQM 17, NA 16, PML/F 5, PML/J 3, PPP/S 2, BNP 1, JWP 1, MQM-H 1, PAT 1, PkMAP 1, PML/Z 1, PTI 1, independents 3
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party/Hayee Group or BNP/H [Dr. Hayee BALUCH]; Baluch National Party/Awami or BNP/Awami [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Baluch National Party-Mengal or BNP/M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami ul-HAQ faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement, or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged with PML); Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; note - as of May 2004, the PML/Q changed its name to PML and absorbed the PML/J, PML/Z, and NA; Pakistan People's Party or PPP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan People's Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i-Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]
note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Mahmud Ali DURRANI
chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1544
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Sunnyvale (California)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ryan CROCKER
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200
telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000
FAX: [92] (51) 2276427
consulate(s) general: Karachi
consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
   Economy    Pakistan Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. However, IMF-approved government policies, bolstered by generous foreign assistance and renewed access to global markets since 2001, have generated solid macroeconomic recovery the last five years. The government has made substantial macroeconomic reforms since 2000, most notably privatizing the banking sector. Poverty levels have decreased by 10 percent since 2001, and Islamabad has steadily raised development spending in recent years, including a 52-percent real increase in the budget allocation for development in fiscal year 2007, a necessary step toward reversing the broad underdevelopment of its social sector. The fiscal deficit - the result of chronically low tax collection and increased spending, including reconstruction costs from the October 2005 earthquake - appears manageable for now. GDP growth, spurred by gains in the industrial and service sectors, remained in the 6-8% range in 2004-06. Inflation remains the biggest threat to the economy, jumping to more than 9% in 2005 before easing to 7.9% in 2006. The central bank is pursuing tighter monetary policy - raising interest rates in 2006 - while trying to preserve growth. Foreign exchange reserves are bolstered by steady worker remittances, but a growing current account deficit - driven by a widening trade gap as import growth outstrips export expansion - could draw down reserves and dampen GDP growth in the medium term.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$427.3 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$124 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.5% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2,600 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 22%
industry: 26%
services: 52% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
48.29 million
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 42%
industry: 20%
services: 38% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.5% plus substantial underemployment (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
24% (FY05/06 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 27.6% (FY96/97)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
41 (FY98/99)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.9% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.6% of GDP (2006 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $20.55 billion
expenditures: $25.65 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
55% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Definition Field Listing
textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
80.24 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
74.62 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
63,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
324,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
358.9 million bbl (2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27.4 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27.4 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
759.7 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-5.486 billion (2006 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$19.24 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 24.8%, UAE 7.8%, Afghanistan 6.6%, UK 5.7%, Germany 4.5% (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$26.79 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Saudi Arabia 11.1%, UAE 10.3%, China 9.2%, Japan 6.4%, US 6%, Kuwait 5%, Germany 4.5% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$13.29 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$42.38 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$2.4 billion (FY01/02)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Pakistani rupee (PKR)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 60.5 (2006), 59.515 (2005), 58.258 (2004), 57.752 (2003), 59.724 (2002)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June
   Communications    Pakistan Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,277,500 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.771 million (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: the domestic system is mediocre, but improving; service is adequate for government and business use, in part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a priority basis, significantly increasing network capacity; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the majority of the rural population
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks
international: country code - 92; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (1999)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 27, FM 1, shortwave 21 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
22 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
72,765 (2006)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.5 million (2005)
   Transportation    Pakistan Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
139 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 91
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 33
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 8 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 48
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 23 (2006)
Definition Field Listing
18 (2006)
Definition Field Listing
gas 10,257 km; oil 2,001 km (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8,163 km
broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 258,340 km
paved: 167,146 km (including 711 km of expressways)
unpaved: 91,194 km (2004)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 16 ships (1000 GRT or over) 397,740 GRT/657,656 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 10, container 1, petroleum tanker 4
registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 2, North Korea 3, Malta 1, Nigeria 1, Panama 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
   Military    Pakistan Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army (includes National Guard), Navy (includes Marines), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
16 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age of 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 16-49: 39,028,014
females age 16-49: 36,779,584 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 16-49: 29,428,747
females age 16-49: 28,391,887 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,969,055
females age 16-49: 1,849,254 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.9% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Pakistan Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; in 2004, India and Pakistan instituted a cease-fire in the Kashmir, and in 2005 restored bus service across the highly militarized Line of Control; Pakistan has taken its dispute on the impact of India's building the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir to the World Bank for arbitration and in general the two states still dispute Indus River water sharing; to defuse tensions and prepare discussions on a maritime boundary, in 2004, India and Pakistan resurveyed a portion of the disputed the Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, had repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees and had undertaken a census to count the remaining million or more, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to control the border with Afghanistan and stem organized terrorist or other illegal cross-border activities; regular meetings with Afghan and Coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary encroachments
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 960,041 (Afghanistan)
IDPs: undetermined (government strikes on Islamic militants in South Waziristan); 3 million (October 2005 earthquake) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
opium poppy cultivation declined 58% to 3,147 hectares in 2005; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that force eradication - fines and arrests will take place if the ban on poppy cultivation is not observed; key transit point for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Western markets, the Gulf States, and Africa; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

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