Country List | World Factbook Home
CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal Bulgaria
Flag of Bulgaria
Map of Bulgaria
Introduction Bulgaria
The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
Geography Bulgaria
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Geographic coordinates:
43 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references:
total: 110,910 sq km
land: 110,550 sq km
water: 360 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
total: 1,808 km
border countries: Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia 318 km, Turkey 240 km
354 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Musala 2,925 m
Natural resources:
bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 29.94%
permanent crops: 1.9%
other: 68.16% (2005)
Irrigated land:
5,880 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes, landslides
Environment - current issues:
air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Geography - note:
strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia
People Bulgaria
7,385,367 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 13.9% (male 527,881/female 502,334)
15-64 years: 68.7% (male 2,496,054/female 2,579,680)
65 years and over: 17.3% (male 527,027/female 752,391) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 40.8 years
male: 38.7 years
female: 42.9 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.86% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
9.65 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
14.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
-4.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 19.85 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.52 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.3 years
male: 68.68 years
female: 76.13 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.38 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
346 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
100 (2001 est.)
noun: Bulgarian(s)
adjective: Bulgarian
Ethnic groups:
Bulgarian 83.9%, Turk 9.4%, Roma 4.7%, other 2% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (2001 census)
Bulgarian Orthodox 82.6%, Muslim 12.2%, other Christian 1.2%, other 4% (2001 census)
Bulgarian 84.5%, Turkish 9.6%, Roma 4.1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.6%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.2% (2003 est.)
Government Bulgaria
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
conventional short form: Bulgaria
local long form: Republika Balgariya
local short form: Balgariya
Government type:
parliamentary democracy
name: Sofia
geographic coordinates: 42 41 N, 23 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
adopted 12 July 1991
Legal system:
civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 January 2002); Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Sergei STANISHEV (since 16 August 2005); Deputy Prime Ministers Ivaylo KALFIN, Daniel VULCHEV, and Emel ETEM (since 16 August 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 and 29 October 2006 (next to be held in 2011); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president and elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
election results: Georgi PURVANOV reelected president; percent of vote - Georgi PURVANOV 77.3%, Volen SIDEROV 22.7%; Sergei STANISHEV elected prime minister, result of legislative vote - 168 to 67
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 25 June 2005 (next to be held June 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - CfB 31.1%, NMS2 19.9%, MRF 12.7%, ATAKA 8.2%, UDF 7.7%, DSB 6.5%, BPU 5.2%; seats by party - CfB 83, NMS2 53, MRF 33, UDF 20, ATAKA 17, DSB 17, BPU 13, independents 4
Judicial branch:
Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)
Political parties and leaders:
ATAKA (Attack Coalition) (coalition of parties headed by the Attack National Union); Attack National Union [Volen SIDEROV]; Bulgarian Agrarian National Union-People's Union or BANU [Anastasia MOZER]; Bulgarian People's Union or BPU (coalition of UFD, IMRO, and BANU); Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei STANISHEV]; Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Ivan KOSTOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; New Time [Emil KOSHLUKOV]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Petar STOYANOV]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtDF (a coalition of center-right parties dominated by UDF)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Elena B. POPTODOROVA
chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174
FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John Ross BEYRLE
embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1407
mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, US Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
FAX: [359] (2) 937-5320
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; note - the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe, has been removed
Economy Bulgaria
Economy - overview:
Bulgaria, a former communist country that entered the European Union on 1 January 2007, has experienced macroeconomic stability and strong growth since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then socialist government. As a result, the government became committed to economic reform and responsible fiscal planning. Minerals, including coal, copper, and zinc, play an important role in industry. In 1997, macroeconomic stability was reinforced by the imposition of a fixed exchange rate of the lev against the German D-mark - the currency is now fixed against the euro - and the negotiation of an IMF standby agreement. Low inflation and steady progress on structural reforms improved the business environment; Bulgaria has averaged 5.1% growth since 2000 and has begun to attract significant amounts of foreign direct investment. Corruption in the public administration, a weak judiciary, and the presence of organized crime remain the largest challenges for Bulgaria.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$77.13 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$27.85 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.5% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$10,400 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 8.9%
industry: 30.1%
services: 61% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
3.45 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 11%
industry: 32.7%
services: 56.3% (3rd qtr. 2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9.6% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
4% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 23.9% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
29.2 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.2% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
24.8% of GDP (2006 est.)
revenues: $13.28 billion
expenditures: $12.16 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt:
23.8% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets; livestock
electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel
Industrial production growth rate:
5% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:
41.96 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 47.8%
hydro: 8.1%
nuclear: 44.1%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
35.23 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
5 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
1.2 billion kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
3,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
109,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
51,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - imports:
157,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - proved reserves:
15 million bbl (1 January 2006)
Natural gas - production:
1 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
5.301 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
5.3 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
5.947 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance:
$-4.13 billion (2006 est.)
$14.6 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels
Exports - partners:
Italy 12%, Turkey 10.5%, Germany 9.8%, Greece 9.5%, Belgium 5.9%, France 4.6% (2005)
$20.69 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materials
Imports - partners:
Russia 15.6%, Germany 13.6%, Italy 9%, Turkey 6.1%, Greece 5%, France 4.7% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$10.58 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
$21.1 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$475 million (2004-06 est.)
Currency (code):
lev (BGL)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
leva per US dollar - 1.56441 (2006), 1.5741 (2005), 1.5751 (2004), 1.7327 (2003), 2.077 (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Bulgaria
Telephones - main lines in use:
2,483,500 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
6.245 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: extensive but antiquated
domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential; telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio relay
international: country code - 359; direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)
4.51 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)
3.31 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
184,975 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
200 (2001)
Internet users:
2.2 million (2005)
Transportation Bulgaria
217 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 132
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 96 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 85
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 72 (2006)
4 (2006)
gas 2,505 km; oil 339 km; refined products 156 km (2006)
total: 4,294 km
standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2005)
total: 44,033 km
paved: 43,593 km (including 333 km of expressways)
unpaved: 440 km (2004)
470 km (2006)
Merchant marine:
total: 75 ships (1000 GRT or over) 872,653 GRT/1,294,877 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 40, cargo 17, chemical tanker 4, container 6, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 4
foreign-owned: 2 (Germany 1, Russia 1)
registered in other countries: 41 (Cambodia 1, Comoros 1, Malta 13, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 17, Slovakia 7, unknown 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Burgas, Varna
Military Bulgaria
Military branches:
Bulgarian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Bulgarian Air Forces (Bulgarski Voennovazdyshni Sily, BVVS) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 9 months; as of May 2006, 67% of the Bulgarian Army comprised of professional soldiers; conscription into the Army to end as of 1 January 2008; Air and Air Defense Forces and Naval Forces will become fully professional by end of 2006 (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,661,211
females age 18-49: 1,660,982 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,302,037
females age 18-49: 1,365,126 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 51,023
females age 18-49: 48,651 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$356 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2.6% (2003)
Transnational Issues Bulgaria
Disputes - international:
Illicit drugs:
major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007