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Flag of Ghana
Map of Ghana
Introduction Ghana
Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. A long series of coups resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981 and a ban on political parties. A new constitution, restoring multiparty politics, was approved in 1992. Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS, head of state since 1981, won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR, who defeated former Vice President John ATTA-MILLS in a free and fair election, succeeded him.
Geography Ghana
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Geographic coordinates:
8 00 N, 2 00 W
Map references:
total: 239,460 sq km
land: 230,940 sq km
water: 8,520 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total: 2,094 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
539 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m
Natural resources:
gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
Land use:
arable land: 17.54%
permanent crops: 9.22%
other: 73.24% (2005)
Irrigated land:
310 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts
Environment - current issues:
recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake
People Ghana
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 38.8% (male 4,395,744/female 4,288,720)
15-64 years: 57.7% (male 6,450,828/female 6,483,781)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 371,428/female 419,071) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 19.9 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20.1 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.07% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
30.52 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
9.72 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 55.02 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 59.56 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 58.87 years
male: 58.07 years
female: 59.69 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.99 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
3.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
350,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
30,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)
noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
Ethnic groups:
African 98.5% (includes Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%, Gurma 3%, Yoruba 1%), European and other 1.5% (1998)
Christian 63%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 21%
English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 74.8%
male: 82.7%
female: 67.1% (2003 est.)
Government Ghana
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast
Government type:
constitutional democracy
name: Accra
geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
6 March 1957 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
approved 28 April 1992
Legal system:
based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held December 2008)
election results: John Agyekum KUFUOR reelected president in election; percent of vote - John KUFUOR 53.4%, John ATTA-MILLS 43.7%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (230 seats; note - increased from 200 seats in last election; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held December 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPP 128, NDC 92, other 10
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Convention People's Party or CPP [Nii Noi DOWUONA, general secretary]; Democratic Freedom Party or DFP [Obed ASAMOAH, chairman]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Owuraku AMOFA, chairman]; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTY]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sarpong KUMA-KUMA]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Huudu YAHAYA, general secretary]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Samuel Arthur ODOI-SYKES]; People's Convention Party or PCP [P. K. DONKOH-AYIFI, acting chairman]; People's Heritage Party or PHP [Emmanuel Alexander ERSKINE]; People's National Convention or PNC [Edward MAHAMA]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU, general secretary]; United Renaissance Party or URP [Charles Wayo, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Fritz Kwabena POKU
chancery: 1156 15th St. NW #905, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1379
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1430
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela BRIDGEWATER
embassy: 6th and 10th Lanes, 798/1 Osu, Accra
mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] (21) 775-347, 775-348
FAX: [233] (21) 701-813
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band
Economy Ghana
Economy - overview:
Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has roughly twice the per capita output of the poorest countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, timber, and cocoa production are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 34% of GDP and employs 60% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002, but was included in a G-8 debt relief program decided upon at the Gleneagles Summit in July 2005. Priorities under its current $38 million Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) include tighter monetary and fiscal policies, accelerated privatization, and improvement of social services. Receipts from the gold sector helped sustain GDP growth in 2006 along with record high prices for Ghana's largest cocoa crop to date. Ghana received a Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) grant in 2006, which aims to assist in transforming Ghana's agricultural export sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$59.15 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$10.18 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.7% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,600 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 37.3%
industry: 25.3%
services: 37.5% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
10.87 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 60%
industry: 15%
services: 25% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line:
31.4% (1992 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 30.1% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
30 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10.9% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
29% of GDP (2006 est.)
revenues: $3.616 billion
expenditures: $3.947 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt:
38.6% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building
Industrial production growth rate:
3.8% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
6.489 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 5%
hydro: 95%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
7.095 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
900 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
1.96 billion kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
7,477 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
44,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
8.255 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
23.79 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance:
$-219 million (2006 est.)
$3.286 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds
Exports - partners:
Netherlands 12.5%, UK 8.3%, US 6.7%, Belgium 5.8%, France 5.6%, Germany 4.4% (2005)
$5.666 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Nigeria 15.2%, China 12.5%, US 6.3%, UK 5.2%, South Africa 4.5%, Brazil 4.1%, Netherlands 4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.098 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
$3.546 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$6.9 billion
Currency (code):
cedi (GHC)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
cedis per US dollar - 9,178.85 (2006), 9,072.5 (2005), 9,004.6 (2004), 8,677.4 (2003), 7,932.7 (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Ghana
Telephones - main lines in use:
321,500 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
2.842 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: poor to fair system; Internet accessible; many rural communities not yet connected; expansion of services is underway
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed
international: country code - 233; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors; fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 0, FM 49, shortwave 3 (2001)
12.5 million (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
10 (2001)
1.9 million (2001)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
380 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
12 (2000)
Internet users:
401,300 (2005)
Transportation Ghana
12 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2006)
oil 13 km; refined products 316 km (2006)
total: 953 km
narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge (2005)
total: 42,623 km
paved: 3,267 km
unpaved: 39,356 km (2004)
1,293 km
note: 168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 6,308 GRT/9,418 DWT
by type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2
foreign-owned: 1 (Brazil 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Takoradi, Tema
Military Ghana
Military branches:
Ghanaian Army, Ghanaian Navy, Ghanaian Air Force (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory and volunteer military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 4,808,451
females age 18-49: 4,762,459 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 3,011,081
females age 18-49: 2,991,551 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 251,056
females age 18-49: 247,777 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$83.65 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
0.8% (2005 est.)
Transnational Issues Ghana
Disputes - international:
Ghana struggles to accommodate returning nationals who worked in the cocoa plantations and escaped fighting in Cote d'Ivoire
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 40,853 (Liberia) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007