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Flag of Slovakia
Map of Slovakia
Introduction Slovakia
The dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I allowed the Slovaks to join the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Geography Slovakia
Central Europe, south of Poland
Geographic coordinates:
48 40 N, 19 30 E
Map references:
total: 48,845 sq km
land: 48,800 sq km
water: 45 sq km
Area - comparative:
about twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries:
total: 1,524 km
border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 677 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 97 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
Natural resources:
brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Land use:
arable land: 29.23%
permanent crops: 2.67%
other: 68.1% (2005)
Irrigated land:
1,830 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
People Slovakia
5,439,448 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.7% (male 465,304/female 443,967)
15-64 years: 71.3% (male 1,929,448/female 1,947,735)
65 years and over: 12% (male 244,609/female 408,385) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 35.8 years
male: 34.2 years
female: 37.6 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.15% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
10.65 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
9.45 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 7.26 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.48 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.73 years
male: 70.76 years
female: 78.89 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.33 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
less than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak
Ethnic groups:
Slovak 85.8%, Hungarian 9.7%, Roma 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
Roman Catholic 68.9%, Protestant 10.8%, Greek Catholic 4.1%, other or unspecified 3.2%, none 13% (2001 census)
Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6% (2001 census)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2001 est.)
Government Slovakia
Country name:
conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska Republika
local short form: Slovensko
Government type:
parliamentary democracy
name: Bratislava
geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky kraj, Bratislavsky kraj, Kosicky kraj, Nitriansky kraj, Presovsky kraj, Trenciansky kraj, Trnavsky kraj, Zilinsky kraj
1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
ratified 1 September 1992, effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership
Legal system:
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 June 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 4 July 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Dusan CAPLOVIC, Robert KALINAK, Stefan HARABIN, Jan MIKOLAJ (since 4 July 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by direct, popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 April and 17 April 2004 (next to be held April 2009); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 59.9%, Vladimir MECIAR 40.1%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 17 June 2006 (next to be held 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - Smer 29.1%, SDKU 18.4%, SNS 11.7%, SMK 11.7%, LS-HZDS 8.8%, KDH 8.3%; seats by party - Smer 50, SDKU 31, SNS 19, SMK 20, LS-HZDS 16, KDH 14
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council); Special Court (judges elected by a council of judges and appointed by president)
Political parties and leaders:
Parties in the Parliament: Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Bela BUGAR]; People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU-DS [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA]; Parties outside the Parliament: Agrarian Party of the Provinces or ASV [Jozef VASKEBA]; Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Peter TATAR]; Free Forum [Zuzana MARTINAKOVA]; Hope or NADEJ [Alexandra NOVOTNA]; Left-wing Bloc or LB [Jozef KALMAN]; Mission 21 - New Christian Democracy or MISIA 21 [Ivan SIMKO]; Movement for Democracy or HZD [Jozef GRAPA]; New Citizens Alliance or ANO [Pavol RUSKO]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Ladislav KOZMON]; Prosperita Slovenska or PS [Frantisek A. ZVRSKOVEC]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Vladimir DADO]; Slovak National Coalition or SLNKO [Vitazoslav MORIC]; Slovak People's Party or SLS [Jozef SASIK]; Union of the Workers of Slovakia or ZRS [Jan LUPTAK]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ
International organization participation:
ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Rastislav KACER
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Rodolphe "Skip" M. VALLEE
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
FAX: [421] (2) 5443-0096
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the coat of arms of Slovakia (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white Cross of Lorraine surmounting three blue hills); the coat of arms is centered vertically and offset slightly to the hoist side
Economy Slovakia
Economy - overview:
Slovakia has mastered much of the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. The DZURINDA government made excellent progress during 2001-04 in macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in foreign hands, and the government has helped facilitate a foreign investment boom with business-friendly policies, such as labor market liberalization and a 19% flat tax. Foreign investment in the automotive sector has been strong. Slovakia's economic growth exceeded expectations in 2001-06, despite the general European slowdown. Unemployment, at an unacceptable 18% in 2003-04, dropped to 10.2% in 2006, but remains the economy's Achilles heel. Slovakia joined the EU on 1 May 2004.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$96.35 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$46.9 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
6.4% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$17,700 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.8%
industry: 31.4%
services: 64.8% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
2.629 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 5.8%, industry 5.8%, construction 9%, services 29.3% (2003)
Unemployment rate:
10.2% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
21% (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 20.9% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
25.8 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.4% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
27.6% of GDP (2006 est.)
revenues: $24.57 billion
expenditures: $26.14 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt:
36.1% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products
Industrial production growth rate:
7.8% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:
28.81 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 30.3%
hydro: 16%
nuclear: 53.6%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
24.2 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
10.4 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
7.8 billion kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
11,480 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
74,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
2,160 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
59,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
9 million bbl (1 January 2006)
Natural gas - production:
165 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
6.719 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
1 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
6.948 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
15.01 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance:
$-3.781 billion (2006 est.)
$39.64 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
vehicles 25.9%, machinery and electrical equipment 21.3%, base metals 14.6%, chemicals and minerals 10.1%, plastics 5.4% (2004)
Exports - partners:
Germany 26.2%, Czech Republic 14.1%, Austria 7.1%, Italy 6.7%, Poland 6.3%, Hungary 5.7% (2005)
$41.84 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 41.1%, intermediate manufactured goods 19.3%, fuels 12.3%, chemicals 9.8%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 10.2% (2003)
Imports - partners:
Germany 25.1%, Czech Republic 19.3%, Russia 10.5%, Austria 6.1%, Poland 4.7%, Hungary 4.6%, Italy 4.5% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$15.75 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
$31.5 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$12.67 billion in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2007-13)
Currency (code):
Slovak koruna (SKK)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
koruny per US dollar - 29.9315 (2006), 31.018 (2005), 32.257 (2004), 36.773 (2003), 45.327 (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Slovakia
Telephones - main lines in use:
1.197 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
4.54 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: a modernization and privatization program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing the waiting time for new subscribers, and generally improving service quality
domestic: predominantly an analog system that is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added
international: country code - 421; three international exchanges (one in Bratislava and two in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)
3.12 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
6 national broadcasting, 7 regional, 67 local (2004)
2.62 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
210,758 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
6 (2000)
Internet users:
2.5 million (2005)
Transportation Slovakia
36 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 8 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 8 (2006)
1 (2006)
gas 6,769 km; oil 416 km (2006)
total: 3,662 km
broad gauge: 100 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 3,512 km 1.435-m gauge (1,588 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 50 km (1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge) (2005)
total: 42,993 km
paved: 37,533 km (including 316 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,460 km (2004)
172 km (on Danube River) (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 43 ships (1000 GRT or over) 217,819 GRT/309,049 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 36, chemical tanker 1
foreign-owned: 40 (Bulgaria 7, Estonia 1, Greece 4, Israel 7, Poland 2, Syria 2, Turkey 8, UK 1, Ukraine 8)
registered in other countries: 2 (Cyprus 1, Georgia 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Bratislava, Komarno
Military Slovakia
Military branches:
Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily), Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily), Training and Support Forces (Vycviku a Podpory Sily) (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
complete transition to an all-volunteer professional force went into effect at the beginning of 2006 after 140 years of mandatory army service; volunteers include women, with minimum age of 17 years (2005)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,351,848
females age 18-49: 1,322,647 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,089,645
females age 18-49: 1,093,077 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 41,544
females age 18-49: 40,183 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$406 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.87% FY05 (2005)
Transnational Issues Slovakia
Disputes - international:
Hungary amended its status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians in Slovakia, to which Slovakia had protested; consultations continue between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia must implement the strict Schengen border rules
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007