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Flag of Nigeria
Map of Nigeria
Introduction Nigeria
British influence and control over what would become Nigeria grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The president faces the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, the OBASANJO administration must defuse longstanding ethnic and religious tensions, if it is to build a sound foundation for economic growth and political stability. Although the April 2003 elections were marred by some irregularities, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections set for April 2007 would mark the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.
Geography Nigeria
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates:
10 00 N, 8 00 E
Map references:
total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
853 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 33.02%
permanent crops: 3.14%
other: 63.84% (2005)
Irrigated land:
2,820 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
periodic droughts; flooding
Environment - current issues:
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
People Nigeria
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.3% (male 28,089,017/female 27,665,212)
15-64 years: 54.6% (male 36,644,885/female 35,405,915)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 1,930,007/female 2,124,695) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.7 years
male: 18.7 years
female: 18.6 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.38% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
40.43 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
16.94 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 97.14 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 104.05 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 90.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.08 years
male: 46.52 years
female: 47.66 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.49 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
5.4% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
3.6 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
310,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: one of the most highly endemic areas for Lassa fever (2005)
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groups:
Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68%
male: 75.7%
female: 60.6% (2003 est.)
Government Nigeria
Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
Government type:
federal republic
name: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 12 N, 7 11 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
1 October 1960 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
new constitution adopted May 1999
Legal system:
based on English common law, Islamic Shariah law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 19 April 2003 (next to be held 21 April 2007)
election results: Olusegun OBASANJO elected president; percent of vote - Olusegun OBASANJO (PDP) 61.9%, Muhammadu BUHARI (ANPP) 31.2%, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu OJUKWU (APGA) 3.3%, other 3.6%
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of Senate (109 seats - 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 12 April 2003 (next to be held 21 April 2007); House of Representatives - last held 12 April 2003 (next to be held 21 April 2007)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDP 53.7%, ANPP 27.9%, AD 9.7%; seats by party - PDP 76, ANPP 27, AD 6; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDP 54.5%, ANPP 27.4%, AD 8.8%, other 9.3%; seats by party - PDP 223, ANPP 96, AD 34, other 6; note - one seat is vacant
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)
Political parties and leaders:
Action Congress or AC [Bise Akande]; Advanced Congress of Demorats or ACD [Alex Anielo]; Alliance for Democracy or AD [Mojisoluwa AKINFENWA]; All Nigeria Peoples' Party or ANPP [Edwin UME-EZEOKE]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [disputed leadership]; Democratic People's Party or DPP [Jerry Useni]; Fresh Democratic Party [Chris OKOTIE]; Movement for the Restoration and Defense of Democracy or MRDD [Mohammed Gambo JIMETA]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Dr. Ahmadu ALI]; Peoples Redemption Party or PRP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Peoples Salvation Party or PSP [Lawal MAITURARE]; United Nigeria Peoples Party or UNPP [disputed leadership]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Professor George A. OBIOZOR
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 775-1385
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John CAMPBELL
embassy: 7 Mambilla Drive, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos
telephone: [234] (9) 523-0916/0906/5857/2235/2205
FAX: [234] (9) 523-0353
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green
Economy Nigeria
Economy - overview:
Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, is undertaking some reforms under a new reform-minded administration. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth - Nigeria is Africa's most populous country - and the country, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. In the last year the government has begun showing the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. In 2003, the government began deregulating fuel prices, announced the privatization of the country's four oil refineries, and instituted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy, a domestically designed and run program modeled on the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility for fiscal and monetary management. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for a debt-relief deal that eliminated $18 billion of debt in exchange for $12 billion in payments-a total package worth $30 billion of Nigeria's total $37 billion external debt. The deal requires Nigeria to be subject to stringent IMF reviews. GDP rose strongly in 2006, based largely on increased oil exports and high global crude prices.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$188.5 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$83.36 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.3% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,400 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 17.3%
industry: 53.2%
services: 29.5% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
48.99 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5.8% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
60% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 40.8% (1996-97)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
50.6 (1996-97)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10.5% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
26.4% of GDP (2006 est.)
revenues: $17.86 billion
expenditures: $19.05 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt:
10.4% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate:
-1.6% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:
19.06 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 61.9%
hydro: 38.1%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
17.71 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
20 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
2.451 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
290,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
36.25 billion bbl (2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
21.8 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
9.21 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
12.59 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
4.984 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance:
$12.59 billion (2006 est.)
$59.01 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports - partners:
US 52.5%, Spain 8.2%, Brazil 6.1% (2005)
$25.1 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners:
China 10.4%, US 7.3%, UK 6.7%, Netherlands 6%, France 5.9%, Brazil 4.3%, Germany 4.2% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$42.97 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
$6.278 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$250 million
Currency (code):
naira (NGN)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
nairas per US dollar - 127.573 (2006), 132.59 (2005), 132.89 (2004), 129.22 (2003), 120.58 (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Nigeria
Telephones - main lines in use:
1,223,300 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
21,571,131 (2006)
Telephone system:
general assessment: expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network has been slow due to faltering efforts at privatization
domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002 resulted in faster growth in this service; wireless telephony has grown rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; four wireless (GSM) service providers operate nationally; the combined growth resulted in a sharp increase in teledensity reported to be over 18% in March 2006
international: country code - 234; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)
23.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2002)
6.9 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
1,549 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
11 (2000)
Internet users:
5 million (2005)
Transportation Nigeria
69 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 18 (2006)
1 (2006)
condensate 126 km; gas 2,812 km; liquid petroleum gas 125 km; oil 4,278 km; refined products 3,517 km (2006)
total: 3,505 km
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2005)
total: 194,394 km
paved: 60,068 km
unpaved: 134,326 km (1999)
8,600 km (Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 52 ships (1000 GRT or over) 277,709 GRT/475,414 DWT
by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 5, combination ore/oil 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 36, specialized tanker 2
foreign-owned: 4 (Norway 1, Pakistan 1, Singapore 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 28 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 11, Cambodia 2, Comoros 2, Panama 7, Poland 1, Seychelles 1, unknown 2) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos, Port Harcourt
Military Nigeria
Military branches:
Nigerian Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Niger Air Force (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 26,802,678
females age 18-49: 25,668,446 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 15,052,914
females age 18-49: 13,860,806 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 1,353,180
females age 18-49: 1,329,267 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$737.6 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
0.8% (2005 est.)
Transnational Issues Nigeria
Disputes - international:
ICJ ruled in 2002 on the entire Cameroon-Nigeria land and maritime boundary but the parties formed a Joint Border Commission to resolve differences bilaterally and have commenced with demarcation in less-contested sections of the boundary, starting in Lake Chad in the north; following the UN-brokered Greentree Agreement of 12 June 2006, Nigeria, in completion of the 2002 ICJ decision on the Cameroon-Nigerian land boundary, handed sovereignty of the Bakassi peninsula to Cameroon on 14 August; all Nigerian military forces have reportedly withdrawn from the region but Nigeria will continue to maintain a police and administrative presence in the southeastern "transition zone" for a period of up to two years; Nigeria pledges to provide for the resettlement of those Bakassi residents who wish to remain Nigerian citizens; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; a joint task force was established in 2004 that resolved disputes over and redrew the maritime and the 870-km land boundary with Benin on the Okpara River; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 200,000 - 250,000 (communal violence between Christians and Muslims since President OBASANJO's election in 1999) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; safehaven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007