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Map of Togo
Introduction Togo
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, continued to rule well into the 21st century. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government continued to be dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967. Togo has come under fire from international organizations for human rights abuses and is plagued by political unrest. While most bilateral and multilateral aid to Togo remains frozen, the EU initiated a partial resumption of cooperation and development aid to Togo in late 2004 based upon commitments by Togo to expand opportunities for political opposition and liberalize portions of the economy. Upon his death in February 2005, President EYADEMA was succeeded by his son Faure GNASSINGBE. The succession, supported by the military and in contravention of the nation's constitution, was challenged by popular protest and a threat of sanctions from regional leaders. GNASSINGBE succumbed to pressure and in April 2005 held elections that legitimized his succession. Legislative elections are scheduled for June 2007.
Geography Togo
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates:
8 00 N, 1 10 E
Map references:
total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
56 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources:
phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 2.11%
other: 53.69% (2005)
Irrigated land:
70 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
People Togo
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.3% (male 1,177,141/female 1,169,321)
15-64 years: 55.1% (male 1,485,621/female 1,570,117)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 59,870/female 86,632) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.3 years
male: 17.8 years
female: 18.7 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.72% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
37.01 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
9.83 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 60.63 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 68.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 52.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.42 years
male: 55.41 years
female: 59.49 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.96 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
4.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
110,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
10,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups:
African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 29%, Muslim 20%
French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.9%
male: 75.4%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)
Government Togo
Country name:
conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
Government type:
republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
name: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 08 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992, adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system:
French-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
NA years of age; universal adult
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 6 February 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE; popular elections in April 2005 validated the succession
head of government: Prime Minister Yawovi AGBOYIBO (since 16 September 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3%, Nicolas LAWSON 1%, Harry OLYMPIO 0.5%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 27 October 2002 (next to be held in June 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPT 72, RSDD 3, UDPS 2, Juvento 2, MOCEP 1, independents 1
note: two opposition parties boycotted the election, the Union of the Forces for Change and the Action Committee for Renewal
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for a Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: [vacant]
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David B. DUNN
embassy: Angle Rue Kouenou and Rue 15 Beniglato, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome
telephone: [228] 221 29 91 through 221 29 94
FAX: [228] 221 79 52
Flag description:
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Economy Togo
Economy - overview:
This small, sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings, with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow-through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a PRGF that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$9.248 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.109 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,700 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 39.5%
industry: 20.4%
services: 40.1% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
1.302 million (1998)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Population below poverty line:
32% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.8% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
22.4% of GDP (2006 est.)
revenues: $260.2 million
expenditures: $311 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:
286.2 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 98.7%
hydro: 1.3%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
929.2 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
663 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2004)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
14,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance:
$-261.9 million (2006 est.)
$868.4 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners:
Ghana 21.1%, Burkina Faso 18.2%, Benin 11.5%, Mali 7.3%, India 5.8%, Nigeria 4% (2005)
$1.208 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
France 17.8%, China 13.3%, Cote d'Ivoire 6.5%, Italy 4.5%, Spain 4.3% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$333.9 million (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
$2 billion (2005)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA, $80 million (2000 est.)
Currency (code):
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 525.817 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Togo
Telephones - main lines in use:
58,600 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
443,600 (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Symphonie
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
940,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
3 (plus two repeaters) (1997)
73,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
520 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
3 (2001)
Internet users:
300,000 (2005)
Transportation Togo
9 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2006)
total: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)
total: 7,520 km
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (1999)
50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,918 GRT/3,852 DWT
by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Kpeme, Lome
Military Togo
Military branches:
Togolese Armed Forces (FAT): Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,102,661
females age 18-49: 1,124,463 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 696,933
females age 18-49: 707,821 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$29.98 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.6% (2005 est.)
Transnational Issues Togo
Disputes - international:
in 2001 Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Togo is a source, transit, and destination country for children, women, and men trafficked for forced labor and sexual exploitation; the majority of victims are children, and trafficking within the country is more prevalent than international trafficking; children are trafficked to work as domestic servants, produce porters, roadside sellers, agricultural laborers, and for sexual exploitation; Togolese women may be trafficked to Europe for forced labor and sexual exploitation
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Togo is placed on the Tier 2 Watch List for failure to show evidence of increased efforts to combat trafficking over the past year, particularly in the areas of prosecution and protection
Illicit drugs:
transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007