Shandong Province

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    Shandong is called Lu, is located the Yellow River downriver, east the Huabei Pingyuan, including interior and peninsula two parts. The interior part and Hebei, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu Province border on, the peninsula partially highlights between Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, remote confronts with the Liaodong Peninsula. This boundary approximately is situated between the east longitude 114°19 ' 53 "- 122°43 ', the north latitude 34°22 ' 52" - 38°15 ' 02 "(islands reach 38°23 ' N) between.

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    Shandong terrain three 环海, middle break out, for Lu south central mountainous region rolling country; Eastern part the peninsula majority of is gentle, Gu Kuanpo for the fluctuation slow undulation rolling country; West, north is the Yellow River silting alluviation plain, for a Huabei Pingyuan part, for Lu northwest region of no relief. South central Lu mountainous region rolling country is located west of the river bank Shuhe River big fault zone, south of Yellow River, Xiaoqing River, east of the Beijing Hangzhou University canal, is the entire province topography highest, the mountainous region area is broadest (occupies in the entire province low mountain area 77%) the area. The prominent peak altitude above sea level has, Lu, the river bank, Mongolian Zhu Shangou peacefully in kilometer above helps the area the back. Middle Taishan's Jade Emperor goes against, the elevation 1,524 meters, are this province high points. Because Zhu Shanpian to north, therefore north the slope is steep, south the slope slow. Center the low mountain flank, the topography gradually reduces, for the elevation 500 - 600 meters knolls, the multi- summits smooth "the Fangshan" the terrain, the locality is called "Gu" to have name of the size 72 Gu. The knoll edge is in front of the mountain which the elevation 40 - 70 meter, the surface inclines the plain, finally submerges in the broad and level Huabei Pingyuan; East Lu rolling country is located Shuhe River, the Wei River river valley east of, three 环海. Except that the elevation 700 meter above Mount Laoshan, the Kunyu, the Ai and so on the minority mountain peak towers above the hilly ground, other majority of elevations 200 - 300 meters undulations knolls, surface fluctuation gentle, Gu Kuanpo slow, the soil layer is thicker, adds three 环海, the climate 温湿, favor the farming and forestry fishing animal husbandry development. Northeast entire area topography and north west higher, the elevation 500 - 900 meters, middle are lowest, about elevation 100 meters. In order to break falls the plain belt; The Lu northwest region of no relief is located west of the river lake belt, Yellow River, Xiaoqing River by the north, surround south central cloth Yu Lu mountainous region rolling country northwest both sides, the topography 低平, about elevation 70 meters. 利津 east of Ninghai for the modern Yellow River delta, extends every year to the sea approximately 2-3 kilometer; Shandong besides the Yellow River delta and Laizhou coast, the Binhai landform all is by breaks the rise and the sea accumulates the function primarily seacoast, from 成山角 to the mist mountain top, mainly is the winding rock seacoast. 成山角 to the Penglai angle is the crag, the sand nature seacoast alternates with the distribution, by the sand nature seacoast primarily, the Binhai plain width 3 - 5 kilometers, has land Lian Dao, Lian Daosha sea and so on dam, sandspit accumulates the landform. The Penglai angle utmost river mouth for the river, the sea piles up the seacoast, the beach is broad, the tidal zone extends 5-10 kilometer. Yellow River from this province to the east Beiliu, finally has poured into Bohai Sea. In addition also has the multi- strip to belong Yellow River, Haihe river, the Huaihe River river system branch transits.

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    Shandong Province is the warm temperate zone half moist monsoon climate, the four seasons distinct, the precipitation centralism, the rain hot same time, Spring and Autumn Period is short, winter Xia Jiaochang. Summer the burning hot multi- rain, are in vogue the leaning south wind; The winter cold is dry, blows the leaning north wind; Spring does the few rain multi- sandstorm, the weather is early changeable; The autumn weather 晴爽, the changes in temperature are moderate. The entire province climatological region difference thing is bigger than the north and south. The annual mean temperature 11 ℃ - 14.5 ℃, by the southing north, decreases progressively from the west to the east. Southwest Lu local annual mean temperature many in 13 ℃ above, places such as Jinan, Zaozhuang reach 14 ℃ above, Jiaodong peninsula, Yellow River delta lowest, are many in 12 ℃ and even 11 ℃ below. In January entire province average temperature - 1 - - 4 ℃, in July entire province average temperature 24 - 27 ℃. Shandong each place winter longest, generally is 140 - 165 days, summer is next, approximately is 72 - 108 days, the fall two seasons are spring shorter, approximately are 50 - 70 days. Frost-free period generally is 180 - 220 days. The annual mean precipitation 550 - 950 millimeters, to northwest decrease progressively by the southeast. South southeast the peninsula, Lu the coast, Lunan are most, amounts to 800 - 900 millimeters; Lu northwest and the Yellow River delta are least, about only 550 millimeters.

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    Shandong Province total population 90.82 million, by Han Nationality primarily. Within the boundaries the national minority except the Hui tribe, the Manchu nationality, the Mongolian nationality has few lives together outside the village or the street, other for live scatteredly. The Hui tribe mainly distributes in places such as Jinan, Texas, Tai'an, Heze, Liaocheng, Ling Xian, Cao Xian about 20,000 people. The Manchu nationality mainly distributes in city and so on Qingdao, Weifang, Zibo, Qingdao approximately more than 4,000 people, 青州 more than 2,000 people. The Mongolian nationality are most by Zibo, nearly 800 people. Zhuang nationality most distributes in the Heze city. The Korean National Minority distributes in Yantai, 威海, places such as Qingdao. The Dong minority lives in Jinan. In 2002 local population birth rate 11.17 ‰, mortality rate 6.62 ‰, natural rate of growth 4.55 ‰. Until locally gets employed the person to 2002 year's end to amount to 47.52 million people.

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    The Shandong Province area more than 150,000 square kilometers, the entire province governs 17 places levels city, 48 municipal districts, 31 county level cities, 60 counties. The altogether 1,253 towns, 294 townships (5 ethnic townships), 372 subdistrict offices, the provincial capital is Jinan.

Shandong Province politics area chart

History Returns to the page head

    Shandong Province was China ancient times one of bright cultural birthplaces. The Qi and Lu culture, the prestige far broadcasts, the Spring and Autumn Period time great educationalist and thinker Kong Zi's hometown Qufu is a cultural old city, the Zibo Spring and Autumn Period time is Qi Guo's capital city. Yimengshan area for Sino-Japanese War and war of liberation time revolutionary base. In 1974 Meng Lianggu the campaign, annihilated the enemy the main force 30,000 people, 威震全国.

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    The agriculture holds the important status in the nation, the wheat is the most main grain crops, the paddy rice many kinds of to along the river with the lakeside plain, moreover also has the corn, the soybean, the peanut, the cereal and so on, the industrial crop mainly is the cotton, the tobacco, the hemp, the oak silkworm cocoon, but also has fruit and so on apple, pear. The fine domestic animals and poultry variety has west Lu the ox, the Texas donkey, the Laiwu pig, piles up Shan Zhu, the Shoukwang chicken and so on, the fur has the cold sheepskin, 猾子皮 and so on. The littoral fishery is developed, produces many kinds of sea valuable thing and so on the fish and shrimp and trepang, abalone, sea scallop. This province mineral resource rich, the industry is developed, mining, steel and iron, petrification, machinery, chemical fertilizer, electric power, spinning and weaving, building materials and so on for main industry class.

    In 2002 entire province realization GDP 1055000000000 Yuan, grew 11.6% compared to the last year, per capital GDP 11,643 Yuan. Primary industry total output value 139 billion Yuan, produce the grain 32.93 million tons, the oil-bearing grops 3.4 million tons, the cotton output more than 720,000 tons, the fruit 8.64 million tons, the meats 6.27 million tons, the milk class 1.17 million tons, the aquatic product 6.95 million tons; Second industry total output value 530.9 billion Yuan, industrial output 462.9 billion Yuan, architecture industry 68 billion Yuan, production raw coal 13,000 tons, crude oil 26.71 million tons, steel 10.01 million tons, pig iron more than 9.6 million tons, end product steel products 10.18 million tons, cement 82.39 million tons, power rate 122.1 billion kilowatt-hours; Tertiary industry resultant 385.1 billion Yuan. In 2002 the entire province society consumable total volume of retail sales approximately is 318.2 billion Yuan, city is the enterprise to realize the consumable retail turnover 201.2 billion Yuan, the county level unit realizes the consumable retail turnover 29.5 billion Yuan, the county level following unit realizes the consumable retail turnover 87.5 billion Yuan. Wholesale retail sales trade industry retail turnover 210 billion Yuan, dining industry retail turnover 37.3 billion Yuan. Whole year altogether realizes the home production fixed investment cost 228.9 billion Yuan. The cities inhabitant average per person may control receives 7,614 Yuan, the actual disbursement 7,501 Yuan, the Engel coefficient is 34.4%. The countryside inhabitant gross income is 4,324 Yuan, the main branch leaves 3,439 Yuan, average per person net income 2,948 Yuan.


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    The transportation extremely facilitates, the railroad take Jinan as a center, forms the lattice, extends in all directions, has Beijing and Shanghai, Beijing nine, Xin Tai, 蓝烟, 兖 the stone, aids 菏, Shi De and so on the main track line. The highway network layout is reasonable, understands various villages and towns, even village. The cabotage is convenient, Qingdao, the sunshine, Yantai, 威海, Longkou and so on is the important harbor, already the to foreign countries opening up, Qingdao was one of our country important international harbors. The aviation take Jinan as a center, moreover also has Qingdao, Yantai, 威海, places such as Tai'an, passable toward national each major and medium city. Jinan, Qingdao and Yantai also have the international flight.

Traveling Returns to the page head

    Shandong natural scenery exquisite, the historical culture is glorious, the historical site gathers together. The spring city aids 南山 famous water Xiu, has famous traveling place and so on the Baotu Spring, Ming Dynasty lake, thousand Foshan. Taishan, Qufu three have been included "World Inheritance Name list", Qingdao, Yantai, 威海 are the summer vacation paradise, simultaneously the Qingdao seashore bathing place, small Qingdao, the Lu Xun park, the Mount Laoshan, the Yantai Penglai, 威海 becomes the mountain top and the black mountain island, Miao Island, Liu Kung Island and so on also is the tourist attraction. Moreover 蒲 the loose age former dwelling, the water anchor Liangshan and so on quite to be also famous. In 2002 travels the person to amount to 980,000 people, traveling bringing in foreign exchange income total amount 500 million US dollars.

    The important city has provincial capital Jinan: for Yellow River downriver amphibious transportation key position and industrial city. Qingdao: for this province biggest harbor, the industrial city and convalesces the paradise. Zibo: is in Lu the emerging industry and mining industry city. Zaozhuang: is the Lunan coal industry city. Northmost part Yantai: Shandong Peninsula important harbor and light industry city.
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