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 Transnational Issues

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

Map of Australia

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Australia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when Capt. James COOK took possession in the name of Great Britain. Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The new country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. In recent decades, Australia has transformed itself into an internationally competitive, advanced market economy. It boasted one of the OECD's fastest growing economies during the 1990s, a performance due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef.
   Geography    Australia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
27 00 S, 133 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 7,686,850 sq km
land: 7,617,930 sq km
water: 68,920 sq km
note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Definition Field Listing
25,760 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Definition Field Listing
generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
Definition Field Listing
mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 6.15% (includes about 27 million hectares of cultivated grassland)
permanent crops: 0.04%
other: 93.81% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
25,450 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the west coast, and is one of the most consistent winds in the world
   People    Australia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20,264,082 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 19.6% (male 2,031,313/female 1,936,802)
15-64 years: 67.3% (male 6,881,863/female 6,764,709)
65 years and over: 13.1% (male 1,170,589/female 1,478,806) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 36.9 years
male: 36 years
female: 37.7 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.85% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.14 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.51 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4.63 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.02 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 80.5 years
male: 77.64 years
female: 83.52 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.76 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Australian(s)
adjective: Australian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%
Definition Field Listing
Catholic 26.4%, Anglican 20.5%, other Christian 20.5%, Buddhist 1.9%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 12.7%, none 15.3% (2001 Census)
Definition Field Listing
English 79.1%, Chinese 2.1%, Italian 1.9%, other 11.1%, unspecified 5.8% (2001 Census)
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
   Government    Australia Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
conventional short form: Australia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
federal parliamentary democracy
Definition Field Listing
name: Canberra
geographic coordinates: 35 17 S, 149 08 E
time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in October; ends last Sunday in March (ended first Sunday in April 2006)
note: Australia is divided into three time zones
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Dependent areas:
Definition Field Listing
Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island, Macquarie Island
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Australia Day, 26 January (1788); ANZAC Day (commemorated as the anniversary of the 1915 landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April
Definition Field Listing
9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael JEFFERY (since 11 August 2003)
head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11 March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister Mark VAILE (since 6 July 2005)
cabinet: prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament, candidates who are subsequently sworn in by the governor general to serve as government ministers
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general
note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12 from each of the six states and 2 from each of the two mainland territories; one-half of state members are elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms while all territory members are elected every three years) and the House of Representatives (150 seats; members elected by popular preferential voting to serve terms of up to three-years; no state can have fewer than 5 representatives)
elections: Senate - last held 9 October 2004 (next to be held no later than June 2008); House of Representatives - last held 9 October 2004 (next to be called no later than November 2007)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 39, Australian Labor Party 28, Democrats 4, Australian Greens 4, Family First Party 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 87, Australian Labor Party 60, independents 3
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Australian Democrats [Lyn ALLISON]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Australian Labor Party [Kevin RUDD]; Country Liberal Party [Jodeen CARNEY]; Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]; Liberal Party [John Winston HOWARD]; The Nationals [Mark VAILE]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis J. RICHARDSON
chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert D. McCALLUM, Jr.
embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600
mailing address: APO AP 96549
telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600
FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970
consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as the Commonwealth or Federation Star, representing the federation of the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and external territories; on the fly half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars
   Economy    Australia Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Australia has an enviable Western-style capitalist economy with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies. Rising output in the domestic economy, robust business and consumer confidence, and high export prices for raw materials and agricultural products are fueling the economy. Australia's emphasis on reforms, low inflation, and growing ties with China are other key factors behind the economy's strength. The impact of drought and strong import demand pushed the trade deficit up in recent years, although the trade balance improved in 2006. Housing prices probably peaked in 2005, diminishing the prospect that interest rates would be raised to prevent a speculative bubble. Conservative fiscal policies have kept Australia's budget in surplus since 2002.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$666.3 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$645.3 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.8% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$32,900 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 3.8%
industry: 26.2%
services: 70% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.66 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 3.6%
industry: 21.2%
services: 75.2% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.9% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
35.2 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.8% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26.8% of GDP (2006 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $267 billion
expenditures: $258 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.1% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits, cattle, sheep, poultry
Definition Field Listing
mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-3.5% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
225.3 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
209.5 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
530,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
877,300 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
523,400 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
530,800 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.664 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37.03 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26.37 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.66 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
821.2 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-41.62 billion (2006 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$117 billion (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and transport equipment
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 20.3%, China 11.5%, South Korea 7.9%, US 6.7%, NZ 6.5%, India 5% (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$127.7 billion (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 13.9%, China 13.7%, Japan 11%, Singapore 5.6%, Germany 5.6% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$48.25 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$585.1 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $894 million (FY99/00)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Australian dollar (AUD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.3382 (2006), 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004), 1.5419 (2003), 1.8406 (2002)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June
   Communications    Australia Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.46 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.42 million (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: excellent domestic and international service
domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular telephones
international: country code - 61; submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 19 (10 Intelsat - 4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean, 2 Inmarsat - Indian and Pacific Ocean regions, 2 Globalstar, 5 other) (2005)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
104 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,772,888 (2006)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14,663,622 (2006)
   Transportation    Australia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
455 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 311
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 133
914 to 1,523 m: 143
under 914 m: 13 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 144
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 111
under 914 m: 15 (2006)
Definition Field Listing
1 (2006)
Definition Field Listing
condensate/gas 546 km; gas 31,323 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km; oil 4,808 km; oil/gas/water 110 km (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 47,738 km
broad gauge: 4,015 km 1.600-m gauge
standard gauge: 28,662 km 1.435-m gauge (1,397 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 14,831 km 1.067-m gauge (2,462 km electrified)
dual gauge: 230 km dual gauge (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 810,641 km
paved: 336,962 km
unpaved: 473,679 km (2004)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,000 km (mainly used for recreation on Murray and Murray-Darling river systems) (2002)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 53 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,361,000 GRT/1,532,874 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 17, cargo 4, chemical tanker 3, container 1, liquefied gas 4, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 17 (Canada 1, France 3, Germany 3, Japan 1, Netherlands 2, Norway 1, Philippines 1, UK 2, US 3)
registered in other countries: 34 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Bahamas 2, Bermuda 3, Fiji 1, Hong Kong 1, Liberia 2, Marshall Islands 2, Netherlands 1, NZ 2, Panama 3, Portugal 1, Singapore 7, Tonga 1, UK 3, US 2, Vanuatu 2) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Brisbane, Dampier, Fremantle, Gladstone, Hay Point, Melbourne, Newcastle, Port Hedland, Port Kembla, Port Walcott, Sydney
   Military    Australia Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Australian Defense Force (ADF): Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force, Special Operations Command (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
16 years of age for voluntary service; women allowed to serve in Army combat units in non-combat support roles (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 4,943,676
females age 18-49: 4,821,264
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 16-49: 4,092,717
females age 16-49: 3,983,447 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 142,158
females age 16-49: 135,675 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.7% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Australia Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
East Timor and Australia agreed in 2005 to defer the disputed portion of the boundary for fifty years and to split hydrocarbon revenues evenly outside the Joint Petroleum Development Area covered by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty; East Timor dispute hampers creation of a revised maritime boundary with Indonesia (see also Ashmore and Cartier Islands dispute); regional states express concern over Australia's 2004 declaration of a 1,000-nautical mile-wide maritime identification zone; Australia asserts land and maritime claims to Antarctica (see Antarctica); in 2004 Australia submitted its claims to UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its continental margin from both its mainland and Antarctic claims
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

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