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 Transnational Issues

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

Map of Mongolia

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Mongolia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and later came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. The ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power in 2000 and produced a coalition government in 2004.
   Geography    Mongolia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
46 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,564,116 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8,220 km
border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Definition Field Listing
vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0.76%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.24% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
840 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
   People    Mongolia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,832,224 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 27.9% (male 402,448/female 387,059)
15-64 years: 68.4% (male 967,546/female 969,389)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 45,859/female 59,923) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24.6 years
male: 24.3 years
female: 25 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.46% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.59 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.95 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 52.12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.51 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 64.89 years
male: 62.64 years
female: 67.25 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.25 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 500 (2003 est)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
Buddhist Lamaist 50%, none 40%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4% (2004)
Definition Field Listing
Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98%
female: 97.5% (2002)
   Government    Mongolia Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
mixed parliamentary/presidential
Definition Field Listing
name: Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 53 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Definition Field Listing
11 July 1921 (from China)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Definition Field Listing
12 February 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 June 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Miegombyn ENKHBOLD (since 25 January 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN (since 28 January 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 May 2005 (next to be held in May 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural
election results: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (MPRP) 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN (DP) 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN (MRP) 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT (M-MNSDP) 12.59%; Miegombyn ENKHBOLD elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 56 to 10
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms
elections: last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.78%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1.42%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - following June 2004 election MDC collapsed; as of 1 December 2005 composition of legislature was MPRP 38, DP 25, M-MNSDP 6, CWRP 2, MRP 1, PP 1, independents 3
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Citizens' Will Republican Party or CWRP (also called Civil Courage Republican Party or CCRP) [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Miegombyn ENKHBOLD]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]; People's Party or PP [Lamjav GUNDALAI]
note: DP and M-MNSDP formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) in 2003 and with CWRP contested June 2004 elections as single party; MDC's leadership dissolved coalition in December 2004
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdan BOLD
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Mark C. MINTON
embassy: Big Ring Road, 11th Micro Region, Ulaanbaatar
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar-13
telephone: [976] (11) 329095
FAX: [976] (11) 320776
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
   Economy    Mongolia Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits. Copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession due to political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000-2002 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth was 10.6% in 2004 and 5.5% in 2005, largely because of high copper prices and new gold production. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 80% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. China is Mongolia's chief export partner and a main source of the "shadow" or "grey" economy. The World Bank and other international financial institutions estimate the grey economy to be at least equal to that of the official economy, but the former's actual size is difficult to calculate since the money does not pass through the hands of tax authorities or the banking sector. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally are sizeable, and money laundering is a growing concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.781 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$1.54 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.5% according to official estimate (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2,000 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 20.6%
industry: 21.4%
services: 58% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.488 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
herding/agriculture 42%, mining 42%, manufacturing 6%, trade 4%, services 29%, public sector 6% (2003)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.7% (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
36.1% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 37% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
44 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.5% (2005 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $702 million
expenditures: $651 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Definition Field Listing
construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.1% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.24 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.37 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
18 million kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
130 million kWh (2005 est.)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
548.8 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11,220 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
515 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11,210 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$852 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 48.1%, US 14.2%, Canada 11.6%, UK 8.3%, South Korea 6.2% (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.011 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 34.5%, China 27.4%, Japan 7.1%, South Korea 5.3% (2005)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.36 billion (2004)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$215 million (2003)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,187.17 (2005), 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003), 1,110.3 (2002)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Mongolia Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
156,000 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
557,200 (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas
domestic: very low density of about 5.5 main lines per 100 persons; two wireless providers cover all but two provinces
international: country code - 976; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 7, FM 62, shortwave 3 (2004)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
52 (plus 21 provincial repeaters and many low power repeaters) (2004)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
272 (2006)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
268,300 (2005)
   Transportation    Mongolia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
44 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Definition Field Listing
2 (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,810 km
broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 49,250 km
paved: 1,724 km
unpaved: 47,526 km (2002)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
580 km
note: only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, are open from May to September (2004)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 61 ships (1000 GRT or over) 319,053 GRT/479,190 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 49, passenger/cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 49 (China 4, Japan 1, North Korea 3, Lebanon 1, Malaysia 1, Russia 13, Singapore 10, Syria 1, Thailand 1, UAE 5, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 8) (2006)
   Military    Mongolia Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Mongolian People's Army (MPA), Mongolian People's Air Force (MPAF); there is no navy (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18-25 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of Mongolian land forces (2.5 percent) is comprised of contract soldiers; women cannot be deployed overseas for military operations (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 736,182
females age 18-49: 734,679 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 570,435
females age 18-49: 607,918 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 34,674
females age 18-49: 34,251 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.2% (FY02)
   Transnational Issues    Mongolia Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

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