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 Transnational Issues

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

Map of Uzbekistan

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Uzbekistan Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
   Geography    Uzbekistan Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
41 00 N, 64 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (doubly landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Definition Field Listing
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 10.51%
permanent crops: 0.76%
other: 88.73% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
42,810 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
   People    Uzbekistan Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27,307,134 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 32.9% (male 4,572,721/female 4,403,405)
15-64 years: 62.3% (male 8,420,174/female 8,594,478)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 539,336/female 777,020) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 22.7 years
male: 22 years
female: 23.3 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.7% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26.36 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.84 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 69.99 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 74.14 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 65.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 64.58 years
male: 61.19 years
female: 68.14 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.91 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 500 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Definition Field Listing
Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.6%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
   Government    Uzbekistan Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: Ozbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Definition Field Listing
name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 69 18 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Definition Field Listing
1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Definition Field Listing
new constitution adopted 8 December 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYAYEV (since 11 December 2003)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held 9 January 2000 (next to be held in 2007); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president
election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 91.9%, Abdulkhafiz JALALOV 4.2%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an Upper House or Senate (100 seats; 84 members are elected by regional governing councils to serve five-year terms and 16 are appointed by the president) and a Lower House or Legislative Chamber (120 seats; elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 26 December 2004 and 9 January 2005 (next to be held December 2009)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LDPU 41, NDP 32, Fidokorlar 17, MTP 11, Adolat 9, unaffiliated 10
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TASHMUHAMMEDOVA, chief]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Hurshid DOSMUHAMMEDOV, chief]; Fidokorlar National Democratic Party (Self-Sacrificers) [Ahtam TURSUNOV, chief]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHADMANOV, chief]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV, first secretary]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Agrarian and Entrepreneurs' Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Committee for the Protection of Human Rights [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 December 1992; Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasila INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers' Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigora KHIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Talib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Organization of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulaziz KAMILOV
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Jon PURNELL
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant
   Economy    Uzbekistan Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it relies heavily on cotton production as the major source of export earnings. Other major export earners include gold, natural gas, and oil. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted the obligations of Article VIII under the International Monetary Fund (IMF), providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry would increase economic growth prospects. In November 2005, Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an "alliance" treaty, which included provisions for economic and business cooperation. Russian businesses have shown increased interest in Uzbekistan, especially in mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In December 2005, the Russians opened a "Trade House" to support and develop Russian-Uzbek business and economic ties.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$54.81 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$10.78 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.8% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2,000 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 31.1%
industry: 25.7%
services: 43.2% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.44 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 44%
industry: 20%
services: 36% (1995)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.8% officially, plus another 20% underemployed (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
28% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 22% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
26.8 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.6% (2006 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $3.145 billion
expenditures: $3.108 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29.7% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Definition Field Listing
textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold, petroleum, natural gas, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.7% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
46.45 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
48.2 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
6.8 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
11.8 billion kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
142,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
148,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
600 million bbl (1 January 2005)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
59.86 billion cu m (2004)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50.2 billion cu m (2004)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.7 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.875 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.41 billion (2006 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.51 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
cotton 41.5%, gold 9.6%, energy products 9.6%, mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals, textiles, food products, automobiles (1998)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 23.8%, China 11.9%, Kazakhstan 6.9%, Turkey 6.9%, Ukraine 5.4%, Bangladesh 4.7%, Poland 4.2%, Tajikistan 4% (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.99 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 49.8%, foodstuffs 16.4%, chemicals, metals (1998)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 26.6%, South Korea 15.3%, Germany 8.8%, Kazakhstan 7.1%, China 7.1%, Turkey 4.7%, Ukraine 4.7% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.986 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.713 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$91.6 million from the US (2005)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Uzbekistani soum (UZS)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Uzbekistani soum per US dollar - 1,219.58 (2006), 1,020 (2005), 971.265 (2004), 771.029 (2003), 423.832 (2002)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Uzbekistan Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,717,100 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
720,000 (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization
domestic: the domestic telephone system is being expanded and technologically improved, particularly in Tashkent (Toshkent) and Samarqand, under contracts with prominent companies in industrialized countries; moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed in operation - four of the GSM type (Global System for Mobile Communication), one D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS type (Advanced Mobile Phone System)
international: country code - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications; Inmarsat also provides an international connection, albeit an expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 10 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
4 (plus two repeaters that relay Russian programs), 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent; approximately 20 stations in regional capitals (2003)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,058 (2006)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
880,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Uzbekistan Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
61 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 34
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 5 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 25 (2006)
Definition Field Listing
gas 9,594 km; oil 868 km (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,950 km
broad gauge: 3,950 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 81,600 km
paved: 71,237 km
unpaved: 10,363 km (1999)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,100 km (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Termiz (Amu Darya)
   Military    Uzbekistan Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 6,340,220
females age 18-49: 6,432,072 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 4,609,621
females age 18-49: 5,383,233 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 324,722
females age 18-49: 317,062 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2% (FY97)
   Transnational Issues    Uzbekistan Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; delimitation with Kazakhstan complete with demarcation underway; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 39,202 (Tajikistan) 5,238 (Afghanistan)
IDPs: 3,000 (forced population transfers by government from villages near Tajikistan border) (2005)
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing
current situation: Uzbekistan is a source and, to a lesser extent, a transit country for women trafficked to Asia and the Middle East for the purpose of sexual exploitation; women from other Central Asian countries and China are trafficked through Uzbekistan; men are trafficked for purposes of forced labor in the construction and agricultural industries to Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan; men and women are also trafficked within the country
tier rating: Tier 3 - Uzbekistan is placed on Tier 3 because it failed to fulfill commitments by the country to take additional steps during 2005, including the adoption of comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation, criminal code amendments to raise trafficking penalties, support to the country's first trafficking shelter, and approval of a national action plan
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

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